Mindfulness is defined as the consciousness that emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, without being critical, to the development of the experience from moment to moment (Kabatt-Zinn, 2003; cited in Boettcher et al., 2014). However, it is more than a type of meditation, as it is considered a consciousness state by nature (Shapiro, Carlson, Astin & Freedman, 2006) which implies consciously paying attention to the personal experience of the “here and now”.
Meditation techniques (both formal and informal) in combination with components of cognitive behavioural therapies, aim to help the patients become more aware of their patterns of thought, feelings and actions. In addition, it helps them to develop a relationship of acceptance with inner unwanted experiences (Morgan, Danitz, Roemer y Orsillo, 2016).
The concept of Mindfulness is essentially transdiagnostic (Boettcher et al., 2014). Consequently, its application in the psychological field is justified from a theoretical framework in which is stated that individuals with mental disorders share specific behavioural and cognitive processes that contribute to the development and maintenance of some disorders (Barlow et al., 2004 y Mansell et al., 2009; cited in Boettcher et al., 2014). These are processes such as selective attention (both external and internal), attentional avoidance, interpretation bias, recurrent negative thoughts and avoidance and safety behaviours (Harvey, Watkins, Mansell, & Shafran, 2004; citado en Boettcher et al., 2014). Therefore, practicing Mindfulness does not intend to address specific aspects of a particular disorder, but certain common aspects to different disorders.